Comparison of Education System In
Abbasiyyah Era and Malaysia
The expansion of educational system in Abbasiyyah era are continuously from Umawi era. The second Caliphate of Abbasid which has power in Baghdad had make Islamic world of Baghdad as a centre of educational that continued the tradition of education in Yunani and Persia. From the beginning, the main city of the caliphate was Al-Hashimiyyah at Kufah. The real builder of Bani Abbasiyyah is Abu Ja’afar Al-Mansur (754-775m) and they had moved their main city from Kufah to Baghdad at main city of Persia in 765m. The climax of the governance was after 7 generation of caliphate. Al-Mu’tasim gave big opportunities to the Turkish and this had made the expansion of Islamic civilization and also the Islamic educational system.
In Malaysia it was different. From the beginning of ‘Tanah Melayu’ when they are still depended on British governance, the educational system is based on British system. Differ to Abbasiyyah era, which they are influence from Turkish and Persia, ‘Tanah Melayu’ was under British colonialism (year 1824-1957), and their system was influence by British.
The question now is, how can we create another Ibn Sina? With the comparison of the educational system in Abbasiyyah era and Malaysia, which one will be the best choice of system to create another expertise in various fields? In terms of the educational policy, facilities that had their government provide, the significant and lack of the system, and the effect that leaved by their era decade to decade.
The educational policy that had practices by their government of Abbasid was start from the mosque as the education institutions. From the lowest stage children will learn the basics of reading, writing, and counting and the youngsters will learn the basics religious knowledge such as tafsir, hadith, fiqh, and language. Their learning is based on Islamic guideline which is Al-Quran and As-Sunnah as the main resources. After that, students will go out the district to study with the expertise in their respective field based on their interest field that they had chosen.
Malaysia had their own system and policy that the government had guide to the educational system. Their system is The Development of Nation and Race based Curriculum policy and the policy of 3M (membaca, mengira, and menulis). They had gave the priority to the education in school which is the education in school is the only that student are compulsory to follow and register. The school that provides in Malaysia are pre-school, primary school, Secondary school, Private school and Religious school before the students continue study at College and University. Everything of the education for the Malaysians had been decided by the government from the early age until adults.
The facilities of educations that the government gave to the people in Abbasiyyah era have a lot of things. Such as, the mosque and Madrasah had expanded and certain mosque is labeled as university. Their curriculum was organized by one body that called as Naqib Al-Hashimiyyin. The institution that was famous in Abbasiyyah era is Al-Azhar, Al-Nizamiyyah, and Al-Mustansiriyyah. The Educations centre is fully sponsored by the government and students had no doubt to think about the learning expenses. The institution is also providing knowledge other than religions such as Literature, Mathematics, Astronomies, Sciences, Medical, and Law. The perfect of equipped in their universities had made it easy to them with the complete sources of books. Their universities have become the biggest Universities with the lecture class, hostel, manager building, and hammam (public bathroom).
Malaysia also has the facilities that the government had provide, such as the school that sponsored by the government. Which is they give the low fees and sponsored the textbook water supply and also the electricity?
The two system of educations had their own significant and lack that will gave big impact to the people and their learning behavior. The significant in education system in abbasiyyah era are, they had no limitation to the student to choose the fields that they really like whether they are in the age which same like others or not, they has their freedom to learn at what age. If they want to learn, there would be a teacher to teach while the teacher must be expertise in that field. The influence of Persian, is very strong in the areas of governance. Disamping itu, bangsa Persia banyak berjasa dalam perkembangan ilmu, filsafat dan sastra. In In addition, the Persian nation more commendable in the development of science, philosophy and literature. Pengaruh India terlihat dalam bidang kedokteran, ilmu matematika dan astronomi. The influence of India in the field of medicine, science, mathematics, and astronomy. Sedangkan pengaruh Yunani masuk melalui terjemahan-terjemahan dalam banyak bidang ilmu, terutama filsafat. While the influence of the Greek entry through the translation-translation in many fields of science, especially philosophy are benefit to the education among them. But in Malaysia, the students should follow the guideline that has give by the government to learn every subject and know each of them. Students are easy to be a follower and they can know every subject that they learn in basic for the beginning. They also can learn informality the knowledge from the past if they like.
The lack of educational system for Abbasid is, they did not have the guideline, and they would learn based on what they interest to. This is good to the people who loved to learn and always want to find something new. But, how about the group of people who did not like to study? They learn based on Islam or they lost. In Malaysia, the system would be good to gave students to know everything, but they cannot borned the expertise in many fields but in one or two field at the same time. Their expansion is to slow because of the guide by the government and the barrier to the expansion of the new idea. It also makes them feel not free to choose the field that they like and the environment that comfortable to them at elsewhere with the flow to grow.
The effect, Abbasiyyah era had created the famous intellectual such like Ibn Sina. Who are the Persian which experts as the astronomer, chemist, geologist, logician, paleontologist, mathematician, physicist, poet, psychologist, scientist, and teacher. Even Ibn Sina was the academician, he also practices his religious knowledge, and he really appreciates to give the extra knowledge rather than others. Other than that, the era also creates the most beautiful city in the world known as Baghdad which attracts tourists and artist to get their idea to draw at Baghdad. The environment of learning habits make the people in the era are always fight to have the highest knowledge and debate also be a part of their lifestyle even at the road junction. The environment also cause no people want to left behind with the situation of competence which they did not have time to be burned and this make the society not have the poor people.
Malaysia also creates the expertise in the respective field such as in the economy, social, and development. The economy has expanded where Malaysia has trade their products and services to the other country. They are also try to develop their society by based on the policy of ‘Developing first class mind of the human capital’ that had introduce by the fifth Prime Minister of Malaysia, Tun Datuk Seri Abdullah Ahmad Badawi which create the domestic producers which having their product to the international with international standard. It also cause the eastern culture had influence by the western culture because of lack of the education of the Islamic religious which based on Al-Quran and As-Sunnah. The hedonism culture had entered Malaysia and influence the peoples mind makes them to be not loved of knowledge and love of entertainment. The ethics problems of society never end and the learning culture had left behind.
For all those explanation about the education system in Abbasiyyah era, we know which education system can create another Ibn Sina. Al-Mu’tasim governance he had change the Arabic world to the Islamic world in a short period of time and create the Islamic education system which had the learning culture and learning environment with the full scholarship by the government make them to create the one expertise as Ibn Sina rather than Malaysia which cannot create another Ibn Sina if they did not follow the Abbasiyyah’s education system based on Al-Quran and As-Sunnah.
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